Henry Spencer Ashbee (21 April 1834 – 29 July 1900) was a book collector, writer, and bibliographer. He is notable for his massive, clandestine three-volume bibliography of erotic literature published under the pseudonym of Pisanus Fraxi.
Ashbee was born in Southwark, London. He became the senior partner in the London branch of the firm of Charles Lavy & Co. He travelled extensively during his life, including Europe, Japan, and San Francisco, collaborating with the architect Alexander Graham on Travels in Tunisia, published in 1887.